The increasing generation of solid waste is one of the major challenges encontour the humanity today, because of the linear economy and a growing urban population. The amount of municipl solid waste (MSW) generated overall the year is arround 1.3 billion tonnes and is estimated to increase to 2.2 billion tonnes per year by 2025 . In 2014, about 242. 6 million tonnes was envisaged of MSW gemeraten in the European Union (28 countries) , whereas in the USA roughly 258 million tonnes of MSW were produced in 2014 .
The composition and the production of MSW influenced by and linked to socio-economic elements along with the local climate and the degree of industrialization. MSW consist of significant fraction of paper, food waste, cotton, glass, metals, leather, wood, cotton, glass, metals as well as plastics . 46 wt % of the total municipal waste streams are the organic fraction of MSW (OFMSW) with large content of food waste, kitchen waste and leftovers from domestic, restaurants and markets .
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Wheras, food supply chain waste (FSCW) is produced throughout the life cycle of various food supply chains such as the stages of production of raw materials, the food industry and the various transportation chains. Around 89 million tonnes of FSCW is annually generated, EU and is projected to increase to 126 million tonnes by 2020. Organic waste can generate greenhouse gas emissions, leachate and sanitary problems if not treated or disposed properly. They had high moisture and salt content, leading to rapid decomposition and unpleasant odours .
However, it also serve a great resource for renewable energy production and for providing green products, such as organic fertilizers, biopesticides and bioplastics [3, 5, 7, 8]. Circular economy is becoming attractive as a key concept for control system of technical and biological cycles . A bioeconomy is “sustainable” as far as it is maintaining our environment and protecting food quality and biodiversity.
Bioeconomy is described as the set of economic activities relevent to the sustainable production and use of renewable ressources and processes to engender economic outputs in the form of bio- based food, feed, energy, materials or chemicals. A “circular” bioeconomy brings the waste hierarchy and the bioeconomy together , where the bioeconomy focuses on the conversion of renewable carbon reserves generated from agricultural or forestry biomass and organic wastes into different value added bt-product. The waste hierarchy conclusively proved in the Waste Framework directive (EU directive 2008/98/EC) is the particular policy for waste management in EU.
The waste hierarchy enhance waste preventions followed by reus e and recycling. Incinaration with energy recovery is a process usually used in EU, that may drop the opportunity to extract valuable bioproducts from waste . However, the risk of organic pollutant formation and production could be increased due to high moisture content, which drop the real incinerator temperature resulting in lowered reduction and destruction efficiency [14, 15].
Thus, a shift towards a circular bio-economy is expected to set a strong perspective on renewed competitiveness, positive economic development and job creation by organizational, social and technological innovation.
In 2014, the European Union brought out more circular resource management approach, skipping the dominant linear economic strategy of “take, make and dispose”. Targets of 70% reuse and recycling and eliminating landfill by 2030 are projected . Regulations and policies are needed for transition to a circular economy, promoting environmentally sound product design and motivate manufacturers to formulate products with reduced environmental impacts.
These systemic changes will be relevant for converting biowaste into a resource including the sorting habits of the consumers and new market models for the use of the new products. Likewise, the advantageous collaboration of engineers, academics, lawyers, economists and policy makers constitutes a key factor to build synergies between research and stakeholders towards the revamp of the future economy. The potential of waste valorization has gained much attention in both scientific and public opinion.
More attractive alternative solutions such as the extraction and recovery of high value-added compounds, where crude oil is segregated into various products such as fuels and raw materials for petrochemical industry are developped. Under this technology, biorefinery concepts considered as key factor for the transition to the circular economy by the development of integrated and multifunctional approaches for the exploitation of biomass/waste towards the manufacture of marketable intermediates and end-products.
Valorization of organic fraction of municipal solide waste (OFMSW) and food supply chain waste (FSCW) currently focused on composting, livestock feeding, and other products with low-added value.
The composition of organic fraction of municipal solide waste (OFMSW) widely differs related to the place and time of collection, while the composition of food supply chain waste (FSCW) depended on the nature of the original raw material and method of harvest. In general, OFMSW and FSCW contained primarily carbohydrates (starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose), proteins, oils/fats and minerals [17, 18, 19]. OFMSW includes food waste, kitchen waste from restaurants, cafeterias and markets, household food wastes, characterized by high moisture content and high biodegradability. Assimilation of various permissive bioprocesses viz., acidogenesis, fermentation, methanogenesis, solventogenesis, photosynthesis, oleaginous process, bioelectrogenesis, etc. in a cascading loop deployed waste conversion strategy to economically bioproduct recovery.
The biorefinery technology can emerged different and several products like hydrogen, methane, biohythane, biodiesel, bioethanol, bioelectricity, biopolymers, biofertilizers with improved waste treatment capacity.The FSCW input from fruit and vegetable processing represent more than 0.5 billion tonnes worldwide (Banerjee et al. 2017).
The potential of those FSCW in terms of bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, antioxidants, flavonoids, fibers, pectin and some other micronutrients makes this feedstock a critical source of detailed studies. Some illustration are the valorization of resveratrol from grape seeds and peels from wine industry (Fernández- Mar et al. 2012) and the study of pomace fractions from tomato paste to extract lycopene using a mixture of ethanol and water (Allison and Simmons 2017).
There are many factors considered in extraction of lycoopene: drying technique of the pomace, Varities of tomato and the aspects of the cultivars, among others. The commercial price of lycopene is 80–90 US$/kg, the commercial format is a red microencapsulated powder with 10% of lycopene, and the final powder is oil soluble. The case of grape pomace valorization has been critical in the recent years because of the growing of wine industry.
Some researchers have been described strategies to extract the antioxidants from grape pomace, which present an excellent and affordable benefit product rich in polyphenolic compounds. (Tournour et al. 2015). Producing succinic acid from natural resources is another approach proved the valorization technology (Dessie et al. 2018). The FSCW could be also a by-product from the process.
The defatted soybean meal generated from the soybean oil industry was used to recover soy protein. The protein content of defatted soybean meal is 45.7% w/w. This high level of proteins is interesting for the current market considering the food directions to plant-based diet.
Dairy-based products including infant formula, beverages including liquid soy milk and fruit drinks, soups and sauces, energy bars, meat analogs including vegetarian food products, breads and pastries, breakfast cereals and other nutritional food products, are main types of products derived from isolated soybean protein (Lai et al. 2017). In the last few years, there is a growing interest to encompass from feedstock as bioabsorbent to rhizobial inoculant production (Ben Rebah et al. 2007).
Pectin, dietary fiber, polyinsaturated lipids, essential oils, flavonoids, and peptides are also bioactive compounds needed for the market and included in FSCW (Banerjee et al. 2017). Pectin was extracted from apple pomace; citrus peel, sugar beet, and waste from tropical fruits are used in the food industry as gelling, thickening and stabilizing agent [21, 22].
Citrus peel residues have also evaluated for pectin, natural antioxidants, carotenoid and dietary fiber extraction along with providing fermentation substrate for the production of value added products like bioethanol and succinic acid . Some recent studies relevant to bioactive extraction from FSCW using novel technologies include the use of ultrasounds, supercritical carbon dioxide, microwaves, and pulsed electric fields (Amiri-Rigi et al. 2016; Zhou et al. 2015).
Drying process is used to stabilize the FSCW before the extraction of bioactive compounds. Flours was obtained from drying processes, and waere used as an ingredient for the formulation of products rich in polyphenols and fiber (Ferreira et al. 2015). It is clear that this recycle strategy offer valuable products like adsorbents and functional flours with low-cost raw materials.
However, the main desadvantage is the high cost applied for FSCW drying, due to the high water content. As a consequence, the production of FSCW flour is economical only if high value- added ingredients are developed (Ratti 2001). Karam et al. (2016) have investigated the energy consumption of different drying technologies such as diseccant drying (6 KW/kg of AIW), freeze drying (15–20 KW/kg of AIW), and vaccum drying (5 KW/kg of AIW). Flour-rich waste streams from manufacture of bread and confectionery products and food for infants have been valorized for the production of microbial oil.
In particular, flour-rich waste hydrolysate used for microbial oil production by Lipomyces starkeyi and a newly isolated yeast strain belonging to the genus of Metschnikowia [33, 34], which consequently used for the production of biodiesel. Waste streams from confectionery industries have been applied for bacterial cellulose production. Another example of valorization of FSCW is rice bran, which is a part of the rice kernel that contains pericarp, aleurone, and subaleurone fractions. 76 million tonnes of rice bran amount is annually produced (Chiou et al. 2013).
Rice germ and bran are usually being considered as by-products, until researchers found that rice bran oil has good composition of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids which turns to be health beneficial to humans like anti-allergic activities, anti-cholesterol activities, anti-diabetic activities, and regulation of the immune system. (Kochhar and Gunstone 2002).
Rice bran oil has been commercialized now in India, the USA, Thailand, and many more. Haque et al.  have proposed an innovative strategy for the valorization of bakery waste for the production of biocolorants. Specifically, bakery waste was initially used to formulate a nutrient-rich bakery waste hydrolysate that was subsequently evaluated for the production of bio-colorants using the fungal strain Monascus purpureus.
Natural pigments recoverd from biological sources were widly applied in the food and textile industries, whereas the natural pigments market is estimated to ascend from 55% in 2015 to 60% of the total food colors market by 2026 . Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids and surfactin were recently extracted from agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes and the evaluated for biosurfactants production .These biosurfactants could be then used in a wide range of industrial applications including adhesives, flocculating, wetting and foaming agents, de-emulsifiers and penetrants. They could used as well for soil and water treatment as fungicide for agriculture or additive to improve bioremediation activities.